My own summary from my lecturer's notes.
Most nations there is a spirit of ethnic solidarity which in turn produces a sense of pride. Those whom this spirit animates are proud of the glorious deeds of their ethnics brothers. Many seeking for truth have come to the conclusion that a strong feeling of ethnic identity must be counted as integral to human nature. Since he will have no idea about his brithplace, perhaps he will be more attached to the place where he grew up. We do not think such as natural to man, but composed of number of accidental attributes which necessity stamps upon the feelings. Man find themselves struggling against the aggression of others. They will formed ethnic units. Then, they will divided into nations. Each of them combined strength in order to preserve their own interest and to safeguard its right from any invasion by another group.Eventually, such is easily disappear as it necessity based on the individualistic racial solidarity.
Judgment belongs to Allah, the Sublime, the magnificient. This secret manifest Muslim's ethnic origin which we reject all clan loyalty with the exception of Islamic sentiment and religious solidarity. Islam religion do not restricted to calling man to truth but it principles are more concerned with the relationships among the believers. It explains the law, defines the excutive power which administrate the law, determines sentences and limit their conditions. It also concerned on goal that regulate the holder of power which he gains neitherby heritage, nor inheritance, nor by virtue of his race, tribe, material strength or wealth. On the contrary, he acquires it only if he submits to the stipulations of sacred law.
The truth of ruler will be Muslim religous, holy and divine law which make no distinction among people. A Muslim ruler has no other privilage than being the most ardent of all in safeguarding the sacred law and defending it. The lawgiver should not take any account of lineage nor of ancestral privilege just to safeguard the right and the protection of people. The Prophet said: "Tribal should not exist among us; it does not exist among those of us who are bound by religion; it does not exist among those of us who die believers. They raised power only because of their obidience to the law and to the intense zeal they display in observing it. The lesson is to set little value on either ethnics ties or racial sentiment but take only religious ties into considerations. Since the possesor of authority maintains religious law and follow it percept means there should not be any revolt or protest against each other regardless their differences while transfer the power.He will not encounter challenges if returning to the original sources of Islamic religious law. His conduct not only can revive of strength but renewal of prequistes of power.
Unlike other religion, Islam view the important of its believer interest in success for worldly life and hereafter. It seeks "good fortune in two worlds. In reality is not the fact. Actually, the schism and divisions which occured in Muslim states originate is because the failure made by the ruler who deviate from the solid principles. They ignore the Islamic faith which built and stray the road followed by their early ancestors. If they return, believe me that God will gives them extensive power and bestows strength like our previous caliphs, who were leader of faith. Therefore, we should act with justice and live in integrity.
[Haha...for my exam paper tomorrow on 3pm. Pray for me]