My Summary from my lecturer notes: Rasyid Rida as our Muslim political thinker.
He believes the development of modern Islamic legal system was a fundamental priority.
He rejects the authority of medieval law and distinguishes b/w matters of ritual & worship (fixed & related to social law). It continues to be subject to adaptation and change by successive generations of Muslims. Eg Muamalat.
Islamic reform requires an Islamic government which restore the Caliphate. A true Islamic political system is based on the consultation b/w the caliph and ulama (guardian & interpreters of Isl.law) Thus, the ulama were backward & ill-equipped for modern time. He advocates the development of group of progressive thinkers who could bridge the gap b/w conservative ulama & westernized elites.
There should be political compromise & shift from reformism to neo-conservative.
The ideas of Caliphate bring unacceptance to some Muslim countries. Eg. Turkey - secularism leadership.
This lead to failure of pan-Islamic unity & pol.pragmatism.
He still wanted to revive the idea of Caliphate in universal but accepted the reality of separation state. If it only to avoid further disintegration of Muslims against colonialism.
Therefore revitaltion of community was dependent on Arab Muslim leadership.
He is conservatively opined the west as threat. The liberal nationalism brought by the west threathen to be both religious & politic.
He saw the idea of secularism amongst Abduh's disciples. Eg. Ali Abdul Raziq
He admires the revival of Wahhabi doctrine. The fact is Islam is not the dominant factor in the dev of Egyptian & Arab Nationalism.
Summary of Islam & Nationalism
Nation of patriotism expresses the unity of people regardless their diff religion in eir homeland. No matter what they will cooperate to defend eir shared country. They will fight from being invaded and develop the country.
Islam vies that Muslim obligated to defend their non-Muslim under their ruling & equal treat accordance to Shariah. When they non-Muslim pay dhimmi is to protect their life & property. They were allowed to exempted in joined the war. This had shown the tolerancy b/w people in country.
Patriotism united the Muslim youth to be a good example for the people disregard the differences, cooperating & sense of brotherhood. He is a member of body greater than his people & his personal homeland is part of his religious community. Therefore in making progress means progress of the whole.